
 Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Helmholtz was born in Potsdam on the 31st of. August 1821 as the son of a senior grammar school teacher
 In 1838 he began to study medicine at the FriedrichWillhelm Institute of Medicine and Surgery in Berlin
 Additionally he attended lectures in chemistry and physiology and studied mathematics and philosophy on his own
 1841  Helmholtz began to do research on physiology on the principles of physics and chemistry
 1843 Helmholtz graduated from the Medical Institute in Berlin
 In 1847 he published his ideas in the paper “Über die Erhaltung der Kraft” which studied the mathematical principles behind the conservation of energy
 In 1856 he published the first volume of his “Handbook of physiological optics”
 1858  Helmholtz's paper „Über Integrale der hydrodynamischen Gleichungen, welche den Wirbelbewegungen entsprechen“ was published and he moved from Bonn to Heidelberg
 He studied mathematical physics and acoustics producing a major study in 1862 which looked at musical theory and the perception of sound
 1871 –Helmholtz was appointed to the chair of physics in Berlin and began further research in the field of physics (nonEuclidean geometry and the theory on thermodynamics)
 Definition of the wavelength of ultraviolet light
 Calculation of the capacity of the light microscope
 Development of the triple component theory of colour vision
 The theory of air speed in open tubes
 Mathematical formulation of the first fundamental theorem of thermodynamics
 Founding father of modern meteorology with his studies on weather phenomena as cyclones, thunderstorms, etc.
 The ophtalmoscope enabled the visualisation of the retina and by means of the ophtalmometer the of curvature of the cornea was measured for the first time
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