- Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Helmholtz was born in Potsdam on the 31st of. August 1821 as the son of a senior grammar school teacher
- In 1838 he began to study medicine at the Friedrich-Willhelm Institute of Medicine and Surgery in Berlin
- Additionally he attended lectures in chemistry and physiology and studied mathematics and philosophy on his own
- 1841 - Helmholtz began to do research on physiology on the principles of physics and chemistry
- 1843 Helmholtz graduated from the Medical Institute in Berlin
- In 1847 he published his ideas in the paper “Über die Erhaltung der Kraft” which studied the mathematical principles behind the conservation of energy
- In 1856 he published the first volume of his “Handbook of physiological optics”
- 1858 - Helmholtz's paper „Über Integrale der hydrodynamischen Gleichungen, welche den Wirbelbewegungen entsprechen“ was published and he moved from Bonn to Heidelberg
- He studied mathematical physics and acoustics producing a major study in 1862 which looked at musical theory and the perception of sound
- 1871 –Helmholtz was appointed to the chair of physics in Berlin and began further research in the field of physics (non-Euclidean geometry and the theory on thermodynamics)

- Definition of the wavelength of ultraviolet light
- Calculation of the capacity of the light microscope
- Development of the triple component theory of colour vision
- The theory of air speed in open tubes
- Mathematical formulation of the first fundamental theorem of thermodynamics
- Founding father of modern meteorology with his studies on weather phenomena as cyclones, thunderstorms, etc.
- The ophtalmoscope enabled the visualisation of the retina and by means of the ophtalmometer the of curvature of the cornea was measured for the first time